Secretary of State Mike Pompeo's remarks came one week after the Vatican and China renewed their provisional agreement on the ordination of bishops.
Marogna has been accused of aggravated embezzlement of Vatican funds for payments of more than 500,000 euros she received from the Secretariat of State through her Slovenia-registered company in 2018 and 2019.
The basilica celebrated the 100th anniversary of its consecration last year. Before the coronavirus pandemic, it received an average of 10 million visitors per year.
The legislation would prevent entities receiving federal Title IX funds from allowing male students to participate in athletic programs and teams for female students.