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Let's look at information on the gift of papal infallibility. Why call it a gift? Can't we just believe anything we want? See the following links for the answer.
It's always a good idea to start with the Catechism. Look at paragraph No. 890 and following for the different ways the Church proclaims infallibly at scbor-romeo.org/ccc/p 123a9p4.htm.
The First Vatican Council proclaimed Papal Infallibility in 1870. To read about this in detail see Session 4, Chapter 4 at piar.hu/councils/ecum20.htm.
Catholic Answers addresses misconceptions our separated brothers and sisters in Christ have about the doctrine at catholic.com/library/ papal_infallibility.asp.
The Immaculate Conception was infallibly proclaimed by Blessed Pope Pius IX in 1854. You can read about what he said in proclaiming it at papalencycl icals.net/Pius09/p9ineff.htm.
So important to the Church is preserving and guarding the teachings handed down to us by the apostles that the Roman Curia has a Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. You can read about their purpose and statements on the Vatican site at vatican.va /roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/index.htm.