There was something fitting about the end of the last conclave, when it fell to Cardinal Jorge Medina Estevez, retired prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, to announce that Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger had been elected Pope. For, along with Cardinal Ratzinger, Cardinal Medina was the most successful of Pope John Paul II’s curial appointments. He served only six years, and was subject to much criticism, but he managed to succeed where it was thought success was impossible. It was Cardinal Medina who resolved what used to be called the “translation wars.”
The measure of the cardinal’s success was evident at the recent meeting of Vox Clara — the board of bishops that advises the Holy See on translation of liturgical texts into English. The meeting was remarkable precisely in its ordinariness, despite the fact that matters it was handling were thought dangerously combustible only five years ago.
Vox Clara marked its fifth
anniversary at the
The recent news that bishops’
conferences in the
The translation establishment, formally institutionalized in the International Committee for English in the Liturgy (ICEL), had become a quasi-autonomous body often at odds with desired direction of the Holy See and the bishops it was created to serve. In 1996, the desire for a better English translation of the Mass seemed destined to remain only a frustrated desire.
Enter Cardinal Medina.
Within months of his arrival at the Congregation for Divine Worship, the Chilean cardinal rejected outright the proposed new translation of the Rite of Ordination. That had never been done before, and Cardinal Medina delivered such a withering judgment of its quality that the “Cardinal Pinochet” whispers against him began, comparing him unfavorably to the Chilean dictator.
It marked a turning point. Cardinal Medina waited, forced revisions and finally a superior translation of the Rite of Ordination was produced. That was just the prologue.
In 2000, a new Roman Missal was published, requiring new translations in all the vernacular languages. In 2001, Cardinal Medina published, with Pope John Paul II’s approval, Liturgiam Authenticam (The Authentic Liturgy), which laid down the new rules for translation — more accurate, more sacred and more beautiful.
The document was the definitive
pre-emptive strike in the next round of the translations. It was released
almost surreptitiously, while Pope John Paul was on a visit to the
In quick succession, Cardinal
Medina ordered a reconstitution of ICEL, and installed a new chairman, Bishop
Arthur Roche of Leeds,
Vox Clara was an imaginative bit of creative collegiality, as it allowed the Holy See to consult with residential bishops around the world in a manner that did not descend into the bureaucratic structures that often failed to conform to the desired purposes of the Holy See.
Cardinal Medina retired in 2002, but had set in place in only six years the initiatives that produced the surprisingly easy approvals given in recent months to the proposed new translations. His successor, Cardinal Francis Arinze, has been able to implement Cardinal Medina’s reforms with little difficulty.
For example, when confronted this
spring by the possibility that the
The result of the process initiated by Cardinal Medina is that within a few years a new more faithful, sacred and beautiful English translation of the Mass will be heard in parishes worldwide. What was previously thought impossible will have been accomplished in short order as the Church reckons.
On its fifth anniversary, Vox Clara issued a tranquil press release that looked back with satisfaction on all that has been achieved. That too marks a change — five years ago the very creation of Vox Clara was criticized as a secretive plot to undermine the translation establishment. Now it is the translation establishment.
The lessons of the “translation
wars” are that bold reforms are possible, if courageous and creative leadership
is not lacking. Cardinal Medina and the Congregation for Divine Worship and
Discipline of the Sacraments endured much grief in the intervening years; one
frequent visitor to the
True enough, but aside from Cardinal Ratzinger, no curial cardinal achieved more than Cardinal Medina did on critically important issues. English-speaking Catholics the world over have reason to be grateful.
Father Raymond J. de Souza
served as the Register’s
correspondent from 1999-2003.
‘A Definite Change for The Better’
This prayer, from the beginning of Eucharistic Prayer I, is representative of the approach taken by ICEL in its proposed new English translations of the Order of Mass prayers.
(Bold words were left untranslated by ICEL 1973 text)
Te igitur, clementissime Pater,
per Iesum Christum, Filium tuum, Dominum nostrum,
supplices rogamus ac petimus,
uti accepta habeas et benedicas hæc dona, hæc munera, hæc sancta sacrificia illibata.
ICEL 1973 TEXT (the one currently in use)
(Bold words were not in the Latin text)
We come to you, Father,
with praise and thanksgiving,
through Jesus Christ your Son.
Through him we ask you to accept and bless these gifts we offer you in sacrifice.
PROPOSED ICEL TEXT
(Closely follows the Latin text)
Most merciful Father,
we therefore humbly pray and implore you
through Jesus Christ, your Son, our Lord,
to accept and bless
these gifts, these offerings,
these holy and undefiled sacrifices.
“The texts we have now, everyone
admits — including old ICEL as well as new ICEL and the Holy See — are not
adequate expressions of the faith,” Cardinal Francis George of
Said Cardinal George, “I think these changes are not just something we have to put up with, but rather they’re a definite change for the better.”