The international situation between the world wars was very complicated: Ideologies like fascism and communism were taking hold of countries, governments and political systems.
Although Pope Pius XI (Achille Ratti, whose pontificate covered 1922 to 1939) harshly condemned those anti-Christian ideologies, the Vatican also signed treaties with countries like Italy (Lateran Treaty) and Germany (1933 Concordat) out of concern for Catholics living there. How do we explain this?
Emma Fattorini examines the complexities of that era’s Vatican diplomacy.
Pius XI was uncompromising towards authoritarian regimes; that attitude was not shared by his Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli (the...READ MORE